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Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface".

With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.

In September , Google's Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.

Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel 's long-term support LTS branches. As of , Android targets versions 4. Android's variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.

In August , Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".

The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, [] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation , [] Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona , [] and several journalists.

With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.

Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule.

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries.

Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android's other source code projects. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched.

Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.

Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.

In current versions of Android, " Toybox ", a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn't provide a command line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions.

Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development.

Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC , [] Motorola , [] Samsung [] [] and Sony , [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.

Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work".

And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads.

Android applications run in a sandbox , an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.

It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely.

This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8. Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.

Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.

An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach.

In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them.

The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.

Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".

In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May , [] [] a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, [] [] with an Android app for the service released in December.

The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.

Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom , [] and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.

Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google's compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version "Google Now Launcher", whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself.

In March , it was reported that Google had begun to block "uncertified" Android devices from using Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that "the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google".

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps , but incorporated portions of Android's platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat," and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have.

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system [] [] and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available".

As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.

Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

Android has suffered from "fragmentation", [] a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half In July , Google said that , Android devices were being activated every day, [] up from , per day in May, [] and more than million devices had been activated [] with 4.

Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" September—November numbers.

Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia", [] with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google's proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; "ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter"; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in ", including Android. According to a Statistica 's estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.

In the second quarter of , Android's share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.

In September , Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.

Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in , early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple's iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.

This approach, such as with the Dell Streak , failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets.

An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire , which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon's ecosystem of applications and content.

As of the end of , over According to StatCounter's web use statistics, as of August 15, , Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in South America It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple 's iOS devices are".

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on October 26, As of October [update] , In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.

In , Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits and other legal challenges.

On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android's Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony , a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.

In December , Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK , which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In , FairSearch , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission , alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.

On October 16, , Google announced that it would change its distribution model for Google Mobile Services in the EU, since part of its revenues streams for Android which came through use of Google Search and Chrome were now prohibited by the EU's ruling.

Google Search will be licensed separately, with an option to include Google Chrome at no additional cost atop Search. European OEMs are able to bundle third-party alternatives on phones and devices sold to customers, if they so choose.

OEMs will no longer be barred from selling any device running incompatible versions of Android in Europe. In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS , for wearable devices such as wrist watches, [] [] Android TV for televisions, [] [] and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks , [] [] and desktop computers, [] cameras, [] headphones, [] home automation systems, game consoles, [] media players, [] satellites, [] routers , [] printers , [] payment terminals , [] automated teller machines , [] and robots.

In , Google demonstrated "Android Home", a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers' homes.

Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in , [] followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December , one reviewer commented that Android's notification system is "vastly more complete and robust than in most environments" and that Android is "absolutely usable" as one's primary desktop operating system.

The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot , as related to the software's name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it "Bugdroid".

It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon, [] Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.

The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Android disambiguation. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.

Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Older version, still supported. Smartphone wars and Patent troll.

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Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it.

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Android har ett stort antal utvecklare av tillämpningsprogram , kallade mobila appar och widgets , som utökar enheternas funktionalitet. Android har en modifierad Linux-kärna och källkoden är släppt av Google under öppen källkod-licens.

Rubin har tidigare arbetat hos Apple inc. Google släppte det mesta av Android-koden under Apache Software License , en fri programvaru- och öppen källkodslicens.

Under släpptes Honeycomb versionsnummer 3. Dock är Android 4. Google Play är den officiella tjänsten för nedladdning av applikationer till Androidenheter.

Betalapplikationer har varit tillgängliga i USA och Storbritannien sedan februari [ 25 ] , och för 29 andra länder däribland Finland och Sverige sedan september Den första telefonen tillgänglig för allmänheten var HTC Dream , den släpptes den 22 oktober Utforska objekten i karusellen.

Apps Carousel Utforska de Android-appar som du kan använda med en mobil, surfplatta, smart accessoar,autokonsol och TV med Android och göra din enhet helt unik.

Candy Crush Soda Saga. Bläddra bland alla appar. Bläddra bland enheter Device Carousel Utforska de mobiler, surfplattor, smarta accessoarer, autokonsoler och TV-apparater med Android som du kan använda för att anpassa ditt digitala liv.

Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge. In June , Google announced Android One , a set of "hardware reference models" that would "allow [device makers] to easily create high-quality phones at low costs", designed for consumers in developing countries.

Google introduced the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones in October , marketed as being the first phones made by Google, [60] [61] and exclusively featured certain software features, such as the Google Assistant , before wider rollout.

Android's default user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation , using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard.

Internal hardware, such as accelerometers , gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, [69] or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.

Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information "hub" on Android devices, analogous to the desktop found on personal computers.

Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets ; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a weather forecast , the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the homescreen.

Along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates.

An All Apps screen lists all installed applications, with the ability for users to drag an app from the list onto the home screen. A Recents screen lets users switch between recently used apps.

Applications " apps " , which extend the functionality of devices, are written using the Android software development kit SDK [78] and, often, the Java programming language.

The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, [85] including a debugger , software libraries , a handset emulator based on QEMU , documentation, sample code, and tutorials.

Android has a growing selection of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by downloading and installing the application's APK Android application package file, or by downloading them using an application store program that allows users to install, update, and remove applications from their devices.

Google Play Store is the primary application store installed on Android devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software.

Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons.

F-Droid , another alternative marketplace, seeks to only provide applications that are distributed under free and open source licenses.

Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage processes to keep power consumption at a minimum.

When an application is not in use the system suspends its operation so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources.

While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on ARM Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS , orientation sensors , dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers , gyroscopes , barometers, magnetometers , proximity sensors , pressure sensors , thermometers, and touchscreens.

Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present.

Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional.

In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse.

Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project AOSP , [] an open source initiative led by Google.

Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis. Compared to its primary rival mobile operating system, Apple 's iOS , Android updates typically reach various devices with significant delays.

Except for devices within the Google Nexus and Pixel brands, updates often arrive months after the release of the new version, or not at all.

The extensive variation of hardware in Android devices causes significant delays for software upgrades, with new versions of the operating system and security patches typically taking months before reaching consumers, or sometimes not at all.

The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.

In , Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its core applications so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS.

One of those components, Google Play Services , is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.

With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.

In May , Bloomberg reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to "shame" them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the "most challenging discussions", due to carriers' slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon and Sprint , having already shortened their respective approval times.

HTC 's then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates "unrealistic" in , and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.

Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that "The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system", "or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers "to be good Android citizens"".

In May , with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface".

With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.

In September , Google's Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.

Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel 's long-term support LTS branches. As of , Android targets versions 4. Android's variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.

In August , Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".

The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, [] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation , [] Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona , [] and several journalists.

With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4. Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule.

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries.

Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android's other source code projects. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched.

Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.

Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.

In current versions of Android, " Toybox ", a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn't provide a command line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions.

Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC , [] Motorola , [] Samsung [] [] and Sony , [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.

GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.

Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work".

And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads.

Android applications run in a sandbox , an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.

It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8.

Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.

Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach.

In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them. The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled.

Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.

Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".

In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May , [] [] a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, [] [] with an Android app for the service released in December.

The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.

Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom , [] and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.

Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google's compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version "Google Now Launcher", whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself.

In March , it was reported that Google had begun to block "uncertified" Android devices from using Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that "the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google".

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps , but incorporated portions of Android's platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated.

Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat," and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have.

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system [] [] and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available".

As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.

Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

Android has suffered from "fragmentation", [] a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half In July , Google said that , Android devices were being activated every day, [] up from , per day in May, [] and more than million devices had been activated [] with 4.

Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" September—November numbers.

Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia", [] with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google's proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; "ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter"; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in ", including Android. According to a Statistica 's estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.

In the second quarter of , Android's share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.

In September , Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in , early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple's iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.

This approach, such as with the Dell Streak , failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets.

An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire , which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon's ecosystem of applications and content.

As of the end of , over According to StatCounter's web use statistics, as of August 15, , Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in South America It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple 's iOS devices are".

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on October 26, As of October [update] , In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.

In , Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits and other legal challenges.

On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android's Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony , a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.

In December , Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK , which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In , FairSearch , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission , alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.

On October 16, , Google announced that it would change its distribution model for Google Mobile Services in the EU, since part of its revenues streams for Android which came through use of Google Search and Chrome were now prohibited by the EU's ruling.

Google Search will be licensed separately, with an option to include Google Chrome at no additional cost atop Search.

European OEMs are able to bundle third-party alternatives on phones and devices sold to customers, if they so choose. OEMs will no longer be barred from selling any device running incompatible versions of Android in Europe.

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS , for wearable devices such as wrist watches, [] [] Android TV for televisions, [] [] and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks , [] [] and desktop computers, [] cameras, [] headphones, [] home automation systems, game consoles, [] media players, [] satellites, [] routers , [] printers , [] payment terminals , [] automated teller machines , [] and robots.

In , Google demonstrated "Android Home", a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers' homes.

Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in , [] followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December , one reviewer commented that Android's notification system is "vastly more complete and robust than in most environments" and that Android is "absolutely usable" as one's primary desktop operating system.

The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot , as related to the software's name.

Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it "Bugdroid". It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced.

Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon, [] Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.

The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Android disambiguation. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.

Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Older version, still supported. Smartphone wars and Patent troll.

Android operating system portal Alphabet portal Free software portal Google portal. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved March 9, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..

Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on December 15, GMS is only available through a license with Google [..

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